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05 September 2022, Volume 34 Issue 9
Open Science: Connotation of Open Innovation and Its Mechanism for Innovation Ecology | Open Access
CHEN Xuefei, HUANG Jinxia, WANG Fang
2022, 34(9):  5-14.  DOI: 10.13998/j.cnki.issn1002-1248.22-0481
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[Purpose/Significance] Open science is shaping a new academic innovation ecology, aiming to promote open exchange and use of knowledge, emphasize open and cooperative research methods, and thus accelerate scientific innovation. Open innovation emphasizes the flow of knowledge across organizational boundaries. Both of them have obvious internal consistency and regard the free flow of knowledge as the driving factor of innovation. However, there are few studies on the relationship between open science and open innovation at present. They are often studied separately in the scientific research environment and the enterprise environment, ignoring the common role and integration of the two in the open innovation ecology. This paper aims to analyze the consistency of the connotation of open science and open innovation, study the mechanism of open science for innovation ecology, and provide reference for building an open science innovation ecology integrating open science and open innovation, as well as for developing open science governance for scientific and technological innovation. [Method/Process] First, based on the existing connotation of open science, this paper established the connotation analysis framework of "resource-process-subject-behavior" of open science, and put forward four key elements and principles of open science: "openness of scientific knowledge resources - transparency of research process - inclusiveness of participants - collaboration of research behavior". Then it de-constructed open innovation according to the connotation analysis framework of open science, and put forward four key elements of innovation knowledge resources, innovation process, innovation subject and innovation activities, as well as the principle of transparent and open innovation knowledge resources and innovation process, and value of co-creation based on the inclusiveness of innovation subject. Finally, according to the four principles of open science, the "Open Science Spectrum" was established to clarify the consistency and synergy of both sides from the perspective of openness. Besides, in order to understand the joint action mechanism of open science and open innovation in the innovation ecology, this paper analyzes the open science innovation mechanism in different innovation stages from the perspective of innovation process, including the open science mechanism in the open science research stage, the mechanism in the technology research and development stage, the citizen science mechanism in the social inclusion stage, and the responsible innovation mechanism covering the whole process of innovation. [Results/Conclusions] The innovation ecology of open science has come into being. Open science and open innovation have consistency in connotation and synergy in openness. Under the open science innovation ecology, open science plays a role in different stages of innovation. Explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge are open and flowing in different stages of innovation, accelerating open science innovation, open innovation, public innovation and responsible innovation. The inadequacy of this paper is that the relevant research is still at the theoretical level. For example, the spectrum of open science needs to be refined to an assessable and operable granularity, and the mechanism of open science for innovation ecology also needs more cases to verify. At the same time, based on this research, we need to further explore the governance mechanism of open science under the innovation system and the linkage strategy of science, industry, society and policy under the open innovation ecology.
Framework and Development Path of Open Science Capability | Open Access
XIAO Man, WANG Xuan, WANG Fang, HUANG Jinxia
2022, 34(9):  15-28.  DOI: 10.13998/j.cnki.issn1002-1248.22-0461
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[Purpose/Significance] The aim of this paper is to identify open science capabilities and skills for researchers, build a capability framework of open science, and explore its development path, in order to improve the open science capabilities of team leaders and decision makers, researchers and scientific research support personnel in the open science ecosystem, and to provide reference for promoting open science and building an open science innovation ecosystem in our country. [Method/Process] In this paper, the relevant research on open science definition, open science capabilities, and competence model at home and abroad were analyzed and summarized. Based on the competency onion model, the open science capability framework was designed as three layers from the inside out: embracing open science values and principles and developing an open science mindset as the core layer, acquiring open science knowledge composed of open science elements as the second layer outside, and building open science skills embedded in the scientific research life cycle and data life cycle as the outermost layer. Then, the possible development methods were discussed. At last, libraries' role in the open science training was emphasized. [Results/Conclusions] The open science capability framework includes three dimensions. Firstly, embracing open science values, including quality and integrity, collective benefit, equity and fairness, and diversity and inclusiveness, and open science guiding principles covering transparency, scrutiny, critique and reproducibility, equality of opportunities, responsibility, respect and accountability, collaboration, participation and inclusion, flexibility and sustainability. Secondly, acquiring open science knowledge based on open science elements, including open science definitions, initiatives, best practices, implications, open access, open data (scientific research data, government data, and industry data), open scientific and technological reports, open educational resources, open scientific infrastructure (virtual and physical), open source code, open reproducible research, open peer review, open science evaluation, citizen science, and open science policy. Thirdly, building open science core competencies embedded in scientific research lifecycle and data lifecycle, including (1) open scholarly communication skills, which mean open publication literacy skills, like making the correct choices about where and how to publish their results, how and what to self-archive and how to communicate their research for scholarly and societal impact; (2) data science skills, which mean data management plan, research data management, data analysis, data sharing, and data storage skills; (3) scientific research literacy skills, which mean research management skills, research integrity and ethics skills, and legal skills; (4) citizen science skills, which mean researchers learn how to engage with citizens, and citizens learn how to conduct research. The open science capability development path includes formulating relevant policies, laws and strategic plans for skills building, strengthening open science promotion and training, and providing comprehensive support throughout the entire scientific research process. At the same time, the library is a key player in the construction of open science capacity, and should lead the design of a scientific and rational open science training system, and play an active role in promoting the paradigm shift of open science. In addition, this research has shortcomings due to time limitation, and we will continue to conduct in-depth research on open science capabilities and refine its indicators, in order to provide theoretical basis and reference for libraries to design open science training system and promote open science training in China.
Ethics Principle Framework of Data Handling for Open Scientific Innovation Ecology | Open Access
LIU Jingyu, JIA Yujie, HUANG Jinxia, WANG Fang
2022, 34(9):  29-43.  DOI: 10.13998/j.cnki.issn1002-1248.22-0463
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[Purpose/Significance] The development of open science still faces many data ethical problems, and there is an urgent need to explore the ethical guidelines for data handling that are compatible with the open science innovation ecology. The establishment of ethical guidelines is essential to create a favorable open science innovation ecology for data handling that match the construction of open science innovation ecology, and guide the participants in the open science innovation ecology to act in accordance with legal regulations and ethical norms in the process of data creation, sharing, dissemination, and utilization, and restraining data handling behaviors for the good and benefit of society. [Method/Process] This study first uses literature research and content analysis, based on relevant laws, guidelines, draft frameworks, policies and typical data management models on data handling ethics, from a universal perspective, based on the practice of data acquisition, storage, management, use and destruction, for social data in a broad sense, while taking into account a part of scientific research data, correlating and integrating different guidelines, seeking common themes and contents among existing guidelines, and summarizing the general dimensions and highly recognized guidelines. This study summarizes the general dimensions of ethical guidelines for data handling and the contents of the guidelines with high recognition. Second, this study combines the concept of open science and the needs of national social development, and distills the needs of ethical guidelines for data handling in the open science innovation ecosystem from the latest domestic planning policies and the connotation of open science. Finally, this study synthesizes and compares the two results through matrix analysis, and analyzes the framework of ethical guidelines for data handling in the construction of open science innovation ecology from the perspectives of commonality and characteristics, and synergy between guideline contents and policies and concepts. [Results/Conclusions] The existing ethical guidelines for data handling have high applicability in the open science innovation ecology, but still need dynamic expansion. Combining the concept of open science and the development needs of national society, this study proposes a framework of ethical guidelines for data handling in the open science innovation ecology, including three dimensions and 15 elements of long-term governance, coordination and order, and systematic science, aiming to serve the further development of the text of ethical guidelines for data handling adapted to the development of the open science innovation ecology in China and to provide some reference for data management in institutions.
Implementing UNESCO Recommendation on Open Science: Common and Inclusive Actions | Open Access
JIANG Lihui, YI Zhijun, HUANG Jinxia
2022, 34(9):  44-50.  DOI: 10.13998/j.cnki.issn1002-1248.22-0464
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[Purpose/Significance] How to accelerate science and technology cooperation and build an open innovative ecology effectively requires solutions that keep up with the times. UNESCO launched the Recommendation on Open Science (the Recommendation in brief) as an international standard-setting instrument for the implementation of open science in its member states. Thus, the vision set by the document will be a new paradigm for scientific research. It is necessary to introduce the process of the creation of this instrument on open science, the value of the standard-setting instrument and its main elements. Therefore, the paper analyzes the inclusiveness of this international normative instrument on open science, puts forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions, provides references for the formulation of the implementation plan of open science at the national level, and also helps people correctly understand the value of open science and better participate in the implementation of the related proposals at the national level and in the global network. [Methods/Process] Before being adopted by UNESCO in 2021, the draft UNESCO Recommendation on Open Science went through the expert-based group discussion, global online consultation, regional consultation, and debate in the intergovernmental panel. Through literature research this study first reviews the process, connotation and principles of the formulation of the document, and then analyzes the challenges that may be encountered in the implementation of the Recommendation at the national level. [Results/Conclusions] Inclusiveness is a fundamental principle of open science that permeates the entire process of developing the Recommendation. It provides a non-binding international framework for promoting international cooperation in science and technology. The long-term value of the Recommendation is to make science more inclusive, transparent, collaborative and accessible. The values and principles of open science must be adhered to in practice by designing a system of participation, relevance, sharing, and innovation. The specific implementation of the Recommendation at the national level requires research and breakthroughs in policy, infrastructure, open mechanisms, capacity building, evaluation and demonstration criteria, including creating a policy environment conducive to open science, strengthening the capacity-building of facilities, platforms and talent conducive to open science, and organizing international cooperation aimed at dealing with major issues and challenges. Therefore, the road map of implementing open science through open access to data, information, results, and the sharing of research processes and facilities should be guided by the problems between science and societal needs.
Knowledge Correlation of Chinese Ancient Books from the Perspective of Digital Humanities | Open Access
WANG Lili, ZHANG Ning
2022, 34(9):  51-59.  DOI: 10.13998/j.cnki.issn1002-1248.22-0423
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[Purpose/Significance] Chinese ancient books are one of the most important carriers to condense the essence of Chinese traditional culture. However, scholars have found that the database of Chinese ancient books only provides book metadata, which can only meet the basic retrieval and use needs of users, but does not dig and utilize Chinese ancient books in depth from the perspective of knowledge organization. The research in digital humanities is in the ascendant, providing an important modern scientific and technological means for the realization of knowledge correlation of Chinese ancient books. The research on the content mining and knowledge correlation of Chinese ancient books will help to improve the development level and service quality of Chinese ancient books, and promote the creative transformation and innovative development of Chinese excellent traditional culture. [Method/Process] Through literature review and online investigation, this paper summarizes the research of Chinese ancient books' knowledge correlation from the perspective of digital humanities. Based on the research, this paper discusses the differences between traditional database and digital humanistic platforms of Chinese ancient books. First, the organization mechanism is different, and the latter has more diverse and in-depth functions. Second, the scope of collection is expanded. The latter includes not only the original documents, but also the analytical texts and extended documents of ancient books, etc. In the past, most database platforms were "digital" platforms; The digital humanistic platform of Chinese ancient books is a platform of "data", which has been upgraded from "storage" to "analysis" and "correlation". Then, the key links of Chinese ancient books' knowledge correlation are discussed, and the barriers of knowledge correlation are analyzed by examples. [Results/Conclusions] From the perspective of digital humanities, collation of Chinese ancient books has developed from document units to knowledge units by using the data analysis technology, machine learning, visualization technology, etc. The realization of knowledge correlation of Chinese ancient books starts from document organization, based on ancient book data, and its essence is knowledge organization. Knowledge correlation of Chinese ancient books can be used for local chronicles and genealogy mining, seal knowledge network discovery, research context and communication analysis of scholars in specific periods and regions. However, the current knowledge correlation of ancient books still faces barriers such as the difficulty of knowledge element processing, high technical requirements and the lack of integrated platforms in its implementation. Limited by the research conditions, this paper only discusses the research and application, key links and barriers of ancient books' knowledge correlation from a theoretical point of view. In the future work, we will take the opportunity of optimizing and upgrading our ancient books' knowledge platform, to further study the metadata description specification, text conversion and content mining of Chinese ancient books, data exchange and update mechanism among different platforms.
Analysis and Enlightenment of International Deepfake Technology Policy Texts: Taking the United States and the European Union as Examples | Open Access
ZHAO Xueqin, LI Tian'e, HU Huihui
2022, 34(9):  60-71.  DOI: 10.13998/j.cnki.issn1002-1248.22-0501
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[Purpose/Significance] In the digital age, artificial intelligence (AI) technologies based on intelligent algorithms have a huge impact on people's lives, and one representative technology is deepfake technology. It is a derivative technology that appears naturally in the development of AI technology, and is mainly used in speech synthesis, AI face changing, etc. However, the abuse of deepfake technologies has caused varying degrees of threat to national security, social and public security, and privacy and reputation. Therefore, it is necessary for the government to formulate policies to guide the behavior of deepfake technology subjects. [Method/Process] Through online research, it is found that the United States and the European Union have paid much attention to the alienation of deepfake technology, and have formulated a series of policies to govern it. Therefore, the deepfake technology policies of the United States and the European Union were selected as the research object. This paper adopts the "X-Y" two-dimensional analysis framework to analyze the deepfake policy text. The X dimension is the basic policy tool, and the Y dimension is the perspective of how to deal with technology alienation. Finally, a comprehensive analysis of the two was carried out, that is, the application of policy tools in dealing with technology alienation is studied. This paper uses Nvivo12 to complete the coding of policy tools, codes the policy terms one by one according to the selected policy tool types, and then analyzes the coding results and draws conclusions. [Results/Conclusions] The deepfake technology policies of the United States and the European Union have certain characteristics in content, such as focusing on environmental policy tools, paying more attention to the governance of technology, individuals and organizations, and focusing on the publicity and education of technology ethics. But in general, it is based on its existing system to increase the governance of the alienation phenomenon of deepfake technology, so as to strengthen the mutual promotion and integration of new policies and old policies. For China, the governance of deepfake technology alienation should be started as soon as possible. Specific measures include formulating deepfake technology alienation governance plans, promoteing government-led deepfake technology innovation practices, realizing the combination of technology ethics and policy tools, actively participating in international governance of deepfake technology alienation. In addition, this paper takes the deepfake technology policies of the United States and the European Union as an example, which has certain limitations, so in the future research, we will expand the selection of samples.
Government Microblog Information Exchange Efficiency and Its Influencing Factors for Emergency Management | Open Access
ZHAO Youlin, CAO Hongnan
2022, 34(9):  72-85.  DOI: 10.13998/j.cnki.issn1002-1248.22-0230
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[Purpose/Significance] This paper aimed at evaluating information exchange efficiency of fire-fighting microblogs, in order to guiding information exchange and promoting the information exchange efficiency in emergency management. There are two primary innovations in this paper. First, compared with the existing research on emergency management and DEA methods, the existing research on the application of government microblogs in emergency management mainly focused on qualitative research. The research on DEA method focused on the performance evaluation of enterprises and banks. This paper used the DEA method to quantitatively analyze the efficiency of information exchange in emergency management. Second, this paper used the DEA method to divide the efficiency of fire-fighting microblogs into two parts: DEA effective and non-DEA effective, and comprehensively explored measures to improve efficiency from these two parts. [Method/Process] This paper took the highest level of fire-fighting microblogs officially certified by the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities as the research resources. In order to do this research, an indicator system based on current influence of government microblog and the efficiency of communication was constructed; DEA-BBC model was used to measure the efficiency of fire-fighting microblog information exchange; the micro and macro influencing factors of fire-fighting microblog information exchange efficiency were identified; finally some measures were put forward to improve the efficiency of information exchange on fire-fighting microblogging. DEA is a non-parametric test method commonly used for enterprise performance and efficiency evaluation in management science. It can be used to evaluate decision-making units of multiple input indicators and multiple output indicators. Beyond that, the decision-making results of the method are not affected by the dimensions of input indicators and output indicators. This method also does not need to make weight assumptions, so it can provide more objective analysis results to make contribution to refining more effective improvement measures. [Results/Conclusions] The information exchange efficiency of the fire-fighting microblogs was generally rated as the medium level. It is better for us to arrange various inputs of the microblog account reasonably, and make full use of resources, which could improve the efficiency of information exchange. In addition, the operation of fire-fighting microblogs in different regions should be based on regional characteristics and period characteristics; local governments ought to strengthen network infrastructure construction and resource investment to eliminate the "digital divide"; government agencies should improve management systems, standardize the words and deeds of netizens and the daily work of relevant personnel. Microblog plays an important role in emergency management, which is also a necessary condition for the vigorous development of China's Internet governance.
User Interaction Mode of Agricultural Knowledge Service System | Open Access
LI Yikai, YE Sa, KOU Yuantao
2022, 34(9):  86-94.  DOI: 10.13998/j.cnki.issn1002-1248.22-0335
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[Purpose/Significance] In the era of big data, people are flooded with massive information, and problems such as knowledge anxiety, adjustment of resource demand structure, and desire for high-quality information follow one after another. From the perspective of technical support, user interaction is rarely explored, but it is indispensable. The application in the field of infrastructure construction and business is relatively complete, but the user interaction of the knowledge service system is still insufficient: at the theoretical research level, there is a lack of summary of theoretical methods and systematic framework design; at the application practice level, there is a lack of systematic guidance. [Method/Process] The agricultural professional knowledge service system has relatively complete and representative user interaction, a large user base, and a high degree of retention, which is worthy of study, but it has certain shortcomings. The research on user interaction of agricultural knowledge system in this paper is mainly divided into the following three aspects. First, by sorting out the research status of user interaction at home and abroad, the user interaction framework of knowledge service system, namely human-computer interaction and interpersonal interaction, constitutes the basic research framework of this research. Second, based on this, using questionnaires and Baidu statistics this paper investigates the user demand of the agricultural professional knowledge service system, and at the same time analyzes the current situation and deficiencies of the system's supply resources, technologies and service layers. Third, this paper proposes an agricultural professional knowledge service system. The user interaction optimization plan starts from the human-computer interaction and interpersonal interaction dimensions of user interaction, analyzes and optimizes the resources, technologies and service layers of the agricultural knowledge system, realizes the friendly interaction of the system, improves the interaction incentive system, and builds a strong interactive knowledge chain community. [Results/Conclusions] The user interaction frame-work of the knowledge service system is designed, and based on this, we analyzed the current situation of user interaction in the agricultural knowledge system, and realized system optimization. The system can better stimulate user needs and understand user needs for the agricultural knowledge system, innovate functions, and provide high-quality personalized services, maintain the attractiveness and participation stickiness of users, benefit more user groups, and play a guiding role in the realization of system upgrades. Due to the lack of relevant knowledge of algorithm technology and lack of technical design for the optimization of agricultural professional knowledge service system, we need to explore the technical layer in the follow-up research; after the system optimization plan is proposed and implemented, experts and scholars need to further test its improvement effect, and propose construction to better realize the all-round optimization of the user interaction of the agricultural knowledge system.
Promotion Mechanism of User Demand to Library Literature Resource Construction, Management and Service: Based on Grounded Theory | Open Access
ZHANG Hongping
2022, 34(9):  95-103.  DOI: 10.13998/j.cnki.issn1002-1248.22-0441
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[Purpose/Significance] The existing research on the subject of readers' recommendation lacks in-depth discussion on the reasons for readers' recommendation. This paper analyzes and interprets the reader's recommendations from a new perspective in order to explore the multiple values of reader recommendation and purchase services, and build relevant theoretical models. It provides a theoretical basis for giving better play to the role of reader recommendation service. [Method/Process] In recent years, grounded theoretical application has attracted much attention of more and more scholars. It is also considered to be a reliable and effective data processing and analysis method in the field of library and information science (LIS), which is especially helpful to improve the effectiveness of user based qualitative research. This study uses the research method of grounded theory to analyze the "recommendation reasons" based on the reader's recommendation data. We extracted and conceptualized the main meaning of the data, refined corresponding concepts and categorized them level by level, and integrated the relevant concept categories and their attributes, using the iterative research strategy to compare the data and concepts back and forth, considered the relationships between them, and linked these relationships in some way, from which we can conclude and deduce the interrelated concept categories, and then developed into a theoretical concept. On this basis, the promotion mechanism model of user demand to library literature resource construction, management and service is established. [Results/Conclusions] The information contained in the reader's recommendation data has a variety of values. The in-depth study and utilization of the recommendation information will help the library correctly evaluate the relationship between resource allocation and service allocation, and promote the library to improve its overall service level in resource construction, resource management, resource service and other aspects. There are still some shortcomings in this study, which is also the research direction in the future: only the recommended information of readers on printed book resources was selected as the research sample, and the resource type was relatively limited; there was lack of in-depth discussion on the feedback mechanism of readers' recommendation. Reader recommendation is a long-term service provided by university libraries. In the future, in combination with paper literature resources and electronic literature resources, and with the trend that electronic literature resources and open access literature resources become more and more abundant, we should carry out a survey on the comprehensive service of readers' recommendation of various types of resources, and further explore the interactive mechanism of readers' recommendation and recommendation feedback.